Ad Hominem fallacy
● It is the direct attack on the person who is making an argument.
● in this case, the credibility of a person is doubted and judgements are made according to it rather than the scientific grounds.
● A person is not tested based on facts rather, false opinions are made regarding the arguer.
● Example: A girl fifteen years old has referred to the statement of an astrologer as just a fake prediction, but her argument is simply rejected because of her age. Her age is considered as the drawback of her argument.
What are the types of ad hominem arguments?
- Aabusive: a person is attacked directly.
- Circumstantial: a person's argument is motivated by personal circumstances and must be erroneous.
- Guilt by association: argument gets invalidated because of a link with something undesirable.
- Tu quoque: previous deeds have tainted argument.
- Ergo decedo: refers to a response to a critic's criticism that implies the critic is motivated by secret favouritism or membership with an out-group rather than remark itself.